Tuesday, June 29, 2010

Fisheating Creek and Fort Center (archaeological place)

© Photos by Juan C Aguero (juanKa)

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The name Fisheating Creek is derived from the Creek Thlothlopopka-hatchee meaning “the creek where fish are eaten.”

artist's rendering of Fort Center
Florida Museum of Natural History
Artist’s Rendering of Fort Center

The first known settlement occurred along the banks of Fisheating Creek between 1000 and 500 BC. The early inhabitants, known as the Belle Glade people, began building mounds and other earthworks and subsisted by netting fish and harvesting turtles, snakes, and alligators. According to University of Florida archeologist Jerald Milanich, who worked on the area as a student in the 1960s, perforations found on turtle shells indicate turtles were tethered to be eaten as needed. The creek was more than a source of food and water. It was also a canoe highway leading to Lake Okeechobee and its resources to the east and other settlements to the west.

photo eagle carving
Florida Museum of Natural History
Eagle carving from Fort Center excavation

The Fort Center site consists of mounds, ponds, circular ditches, and linear embankments built over at least 2000 years. William Sears, director of the excavation and author of Fort Center: An Archeological Site in the Lake Okeechobee Basin, believes that corn pollen found in one of the three overlapping basins indicates that the Belle Glade people grew corn. If true, Fort Center would be one of the earliest, if not the earliest, example of agriculture in the pre-Columbian Eastern United States. Sears theorizes that people dug ditches to drain the soil for corn, which will not grow in wet soils, and that this practice may have spread across the Caribbean or around the Gulf from the lowlands of Mexico.

At the site, bundles of human remains were found along with the remnants of a wooden platform decorated with wooden carvings of wildlife including life-size cats, a bear, foxes, eagles, and wading birds. Other objects were preserved in the muck at the bottom of the pond including a wooden carving of an otter running with a fish in its mouth. The site, listed in the National Register of Historic Places, was still occupied, although there was no evidence of agriculture, when the Europeans arrived in the 16th and 17th centuries.

During the Second Seminole War (1835-1842), a cabbage palm palisade at the site was named Fort Center for Lieutenant J.P. Center. Oscen Tustenuggee, who had organized many war parties, and his two bothers Micco Tustenuggee and Old Tustenuggee and their wives lived in villages along the creek. In 1842, George Henry Preble of the U.S. Navy described the difficulties of a trip up Fisheating Creek in a 30-foot cypress dugout canoe named “Susan” after his sweetheart: “This stream is very tortuous, and sometimes swells into a river, and then dwindles into a brook.”

drawing of canoe travelers in 1842
Florida Photo Archives
Traveling on Fisheating Creek, 1842.

The fort was reactivated at the start of the Third Seminole War in 1855. Lieutenant Henry Benson described Fort Center upon his arrival in April 1855 as “more disagreeable, unhealthy and devoid of interest than I had expected….Mosquitos awful. 1,000,000,000 of them….Hot-hot as fire all day.” His diary concludes with “the same in the same. Killed two snakes.” At the conclusion of the Third Seminole War in 1858, many Indians had been removed from Florida. In 1881, Clay MacCauley at the direction of the federal government found 37 extended families living in 22 campsites in five areas, one of which was Fisheating Creek. By 1930, cultivation of sugar cane, cattle ranching, and establishment of a refinery at Moore Haven forced the remaining Seminoles to move from Fisheating Creek. Some Seminoles went to work for cattle barron Jacob Summerlin.

Much of the land surrounding the creek came to be owned by the Lykes Brothers. The Lykes Empire began in the 1880s when Dr. Howell Tyson Lykes began exporting cattle to Cuba. All seven of his sons went into the family cattle or shipping business, and today Lykes Brothers Inc. is the largest producer of cattle and the biggest meat packer in Florida.

Over the years the creek has been the focal point in the lives of the local people. They courted, married, honeymooned, and baptized their children there. Along the banks they colored and hid Easter eggs and celebrated Thanksgiving. They depended on the creek for subsistence and recreation, hunting, fishing, and camping along its banks.

photo fisheating creek picnic Florida Photo Archives

The Lykes family prohibited development along the creek and ran a campground and a canoeing concession at Palmdale. In 1989, the Lykes Brothers closed the creek to the public, igniting a 10-year legal battle. On February 19, 1998, Circuit Court Judge Charles Carlton ruled that Fisheating Creek belonged to the people of Florida, although the ordinary high water line, which is used to determine the boundary between public lands and private lands, had not been determined. Lykes Brothers appealed the decision. To put an end to litigation, the parties agreed to a settlement calling for the state of Florida to purchase a corridor along the creek under the auspices of the Conservation and Recreation Lands (CARL) Program using funds appropriated by the Florida Forever Act. This land (18,272 acres) became Fisheating Creek WMA. The settlement agreement has a number of stipulations that determine recreational use on the area including prohibition of motor vehicles, jet skis, and jet-powered watercraft; hunting west of U.S. 27 by quota permit only; prohibition of hunting east of U.S. 27 except for special opportunity spring turkey hunts; and restriction of airboats from portions of Cowbone Marsh.


Encounter a wilder side of Florida's splendour. Untouched forests, thick with wild game and exotic birds, await you on the isolated and hidden Fort Center Nature Trail.
© Susan Etchey, Jul12, 2009(Free lance writer, she resides in Lake Port next to Fort Center)

The newly opened Fort Center Nature Trail is nestled deep in tropical woodlands in the vast floodplain forest and freshwater marshes near Lake Okeechobee. It is perfection for hiking if you love the peace and beauty of raw nature. There are no crowds; maybe not even a single soul will pass by. It’s just you and beautiful, awe-inspiring nature.

Archaeological Site at Fisheating Creek

The four-mile trail off of Highway 78 in rural Glades County was recently opened at the east end of the 18, 272 acre Fisheating Creek Wildlife Management Area operated by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. The trail leads to the now vanished historic Fort Center, once a ragtag military outpost during the Second Seminole War located alongside the meandering 50-mile Fisheating Creek, according to Lawrence E. Will, author of A Cracker History of Okeechobee.

Interpretive signage at outlooks and kiosks along the way tell about the usage of the land in its modern day as a cattle ranch. Even more interesting is the story of Fort Center’s prehistoric occupation. Archaeologists in the 1960’s found earthworks, mounds and wooden carvings that pre-date 200 A.D. and evidence of human settlement between 1000 and 500 B.C. The excavation of the Indian mounds over a six year period by anthropologist and author William Sears is recorded in his book Fort Center: An Archaeological Site in the Lake Okeechobee Basin.

Bird Watching Bonanza

You may see, depending on the season, an incredible diversity of wild birds. Loons, cormorants, anhinga, great blue herons, cattle egrets, white ibis, osprey, hawks and eagles are regular visitors. The endangered swallowtail kite has habitat here beautifully described in the book Tracking Desire: A Journey After Swallow-Tailed Kites by wildlife activist and naturalist Susan Cerulean. Sandhill cranes, quails, falcons, wild turkey, limpkins and many more species can not only be seen but also heard when their whoops and calls echo across the marsh.

Wildlife Abundant in Woods

Wild hogs are pervasive; alligators sleep lazily on shorelines of the creek, cattle still roam on the prairies of marsh grass, white tailed deer flit through woods and meadow. Hammocks of live oak and cabbage palm, strangler fig and gumbo-limbo offer a canopy of shade and dwelling in the forests are many creatures native to Florida. Bears and panthers have been seen on rare occasions, but most wild animals will not come close to humans. Hunting with a license is permitted during certain seasons but only in designated areas far from public hiking and camping.

Update News - Fort Center

Ecology, Ritual, and Monument Construction in South Florida
Department of Anthropology, The Ohio State University, Columbus
Instructor: Dr. Victor D. Thompson
Anthropology 685: Field School in Archaeology, Session: June 21—July 26th Summer, 2010


Thursday, June 17, 2010

Liguus fasciatus (life3)

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Liguus fasciatus (life3) from Juan C Aguero on Vimeo.

© Juan C Aguero (juanKa)

Friday, June 4, 2010

Roseate Spoonbill

Roseate Spoonbill

© Juan C Aguero (juanKa)
Photos 2009-2010


Nature Of Migration In The Species

Best described as dispersive after breeding, probably throughout entire range in response to local environmental conditions. Certain populations may also regularly migrate. Postbreeding dispersal often related to drying and flooding cycles, as well as sub-sequent food availability. In Costa Rica and Yucatán Peninsula, this species moves inland when coastal marshes and mangroves have dried out and rainy season has commenced (Stiles and Skutch 1989, Ornat-Lopez and Ramo 1992). In Florida, postbreeding dispersal of juveniles to interior marshes of mainland varies from year to year; few individuals were present during one year of deep flooding (1979; Robertson et al. 1983). In Louisiana, after breeding, individuals disperse inland in response to concentrated food from drawn-down crayfish and catfish ponds at farms (S. Cardiff pers. comm.). Age classes may have different distribution and seasonal patterns of movement, but not definitive (Robertson et al. 1983). Northward dispersal in U.S. can be extensive and irruptive in some years, consisting of mostly immature birds. See Distribution: the Americas, above.

Timing And Routes Of Migration

Presence of this species in U.S. breeding range throughout year makes it difficult to characterize movement. The small number of band recoveries and sightings of marked individuals beyond first year hinders analysis of age and movement (Robertson et al. 1983, Telfair and Swepston 1987, Powell and Bjork 1990). Initial dispersal is northward, at least by juveniles and other immatures after breeding season; this dispersal is followed by movement south for winter (see Demography and populations: range, below). Ju-veniles leave Florida Bay colonies in Mar and disperse northward; adults leave colonies in Mar or Apr and do not return until Oct or Nov for winter breeding; summer destination of adults largely undetermined (Allen 1942, Robertson et al. 1983, Bjork and Powell 1996). Likely includes parts of peninsular Florida where adults may renest (see Fig. 1); and Cuba (Allen 1942). Observed in transit between Florida and Cuba in both directions (A. Sprunt IV pers. comm.). In Texas, occupies breeding colonies until sometime in Aug; returns in late Feb, Mar, and Apr. Records indicate dispersal northward in late summer and fall along watercourses, including inland (Oberholser 1974). Band recoveries of adults and juveniles in Mexico during winter document presence of Texas birds along Gulf Coast from Tamaulipas south to Veracruz, but 1 bird was recovered in winter in Louisiana as well (11 recoveries in Mexico, 9 coastal, n = 910 banded, 1955–1983; Telfair and Swepston 1987). Withdrawal in winter is not complete; occa-sionally winter numbers remain similar to those in summer along coast (Allen 1942, Oberholser 1974, Rappole and Blacklock 1994).

Extent that nonbreeding and breeding populations in U.S. are augmented by migrants or recruitment from outside U.S. is poorly understood (reviewed by Robertson et al. 1983; see Demography and populations: population status, below). Summer population along southwestern coast of Florida probably is augmented by northward movement of immature birds originating in Cuba or nearby (Allen 1942, but see Robertson et al. 1983), since the large numbers (average 500) of immatures during spring and summer 1941 could not be accounted for by the small numbers of breeders in the state at the time. Similarly in Texas, adults and immatures originating in Mexico probably contribute to spring and summer nonbreeding population (Bent 1926, Allen 1942). Birds from Mexico apparently were important in rapid repopulation of Texas colonies following decimation in early 1900s. Distribution in U.S. suggests that gene flow may occur between eastern and western U.S. populations via Yucatán Peninsula into Cuba, then Florida, since overlap apparently is minimal in Alabama and Mississippi. See Distribution: the Americas, above.